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Phase I

Media policies and regulatory practices in a selected set of European countries, generic the European Union and the Council of Europe

A comprehensive collective report discussing media policy and regulation in 14 European countries was produced in the context of the MEDIADEM project. The report discusses the configuration of the media landscape in the countries under study, injection explores the main regulatory instruments used to govern the media, and assesses the implications of the policies conducted for democratic politics.

The report also contains an analysis of the media-related activities of the European Union and the Council of Europe, focusing on the interventions that are relevant for the protection and promotion of media freedom and independence.

You may download the collective report here. Individual chapters are also available in pdf format: Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, Romania, Slovakia, Spain (also available in Spanish), Turkey, the UK, EU/CoE.

The formation and implementation of national media policies in Europe and their relationship to democratic society and media freedom and independence: A theoretical and analytical frame for the MEDIADEM project

A theoretical report clarifying basic concepts and analytical issues upon which MEDIADEM research is based and pursued was produced. The report conceptualises media policy in an increasingly converged and integrated media environment, and discusses its relationship to democracy, as well as its nature, scope, making and implementation. The report further explores the concept of media freedom and independence, which is identified as a distinct area for the study of media policy, and examines present practice and potential of regulation in the field. The report is available here.

Phase II

Case study reports – Does media policy promote media freedom and independence?

14 case study reports discussing the policy processes and the regulatory tools that have a bearing on the development of free and independent media in the countries covered by the MEDIADEM project were issued. The case study reports engage in an empirical study of the institutional dynamics of media policy-making in the countries under review. They also examine the regulatory framework governing the media, investigating whether the domestic rules, as enacted and implemented, facilitate the development of free and independent media. The methodology employed for the case study reports combines an examination of primary resources, secondary literature and semi-structured interviews with policy-makers, journalists and independent media regulators, amongst others.

In more detail, the reports:

  • Identify the institutional structures and the actors involved in media policy formulation and implementation, inquiring into the values that guide their activities, in particular freedom of expression and the right to information;
  • Investigate the formulation and implementation of the legal rules concerned with the configuration of the media market and the diversification of media content;
  • Examine journalists’ professional practices and autonomy;
  • Explore the media literacy initiatives adopted at a state and non-state level, the degree to which they are underpinned by freedom of expression and information standards, and media transparency.

You may download the case study reports in pdf format: Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, Romania, Slovakia (also available in Slovakian), Spain, Turkey, and the UK.

Phase III

Comparative reports – Similarities and differences across the MEDIADEM countries

A collection of reports, entitled Media freedom and independence in 14 European countries: A comparative perspective, was published. The reports focus on a comparative analysis of the most pertinent questions and key issue areas for media freedom and independence across the MEDIADEM countries. Based on the project’s empirical research, these reports examine and analyse the contribution (or not) of different media policy patterns to the promotion of free and independent media. The reports address:

a) the freedom and independence of public service media in the MEDIADEM countries;

b) the relationship between politics and the media in five Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Romania and Slovakia;

c) trends and policy approaches pertaining to new media services in the MEDIADEM countries;

d) the professional autonomy in journalism as a factor for safeguarding freedom of expression in the MEDIADEM countries; and

e) the role of the European courts in shaping media policies in the MEDIADEM countries.

MEDIADEM’s comparative output also comprises a report entitled The regulatory quest for free and independent media. This report examines the different forms of media regulation currently in place in the fourteen countries covered by the MEDIADEM project with a view to identifying common patterns, best practices and emerging problems. The report adopts an integrated notion of media, including digital media, and examines: a) different levels of regulation (national and European regulatory processes, stemming from both the European Union and the Council of Europe); and b) various forms of regulation (public and private regulation, hybrids thereof, and multiple institutional and governance arrangements).

Phase IV

Media policy development: Policy suggestions for the promotion of media freedom and independence

The fourth stage of the project involved the formulation of policy guidelines for the promotion of free and independent media on the basis of the project’s findings. These address state and non-state actors involved in media policy?making, the European Union and the Council of Europe. Our policy recommendations take the form of a collective policy report and three policy briefs forming part of MEDIADEM’s policy brief series.

- The collective policy report addressing state and non-state actors involved in the design and implementation of media policies supportive of media freedom and independence, the European Union and the Council of Europe  comprises policy papers with recommendations for the promotion of media freedom and independence in the 14 MEDIADEM countries. In addition, it formulates policy recommendations addressing the Council of Europe and the European Union and offers a regulatory matrix that provides an overview of the regulatory systems at work in the 14 countries under study. The collective report is available here (in English). The policy paper concerning the Council of Europe and the European Union including the regulatory matrix is also available individually here.

- The policy papers for the promotion of media freedom and independence in the 14 countries covered by the MEDIADEM project are also available in the official language(s) of the countries concerned. In addition to the recommendations targeting national media policy-makers and other stakeholders, these policy papers include a succinct summary of the project’s recommendations for the European Union (EU) and the Council of Europe with a view to encouraging the sharing of results and strengthening communication among national and European policy actors.

Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Belgium (in Dutch);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Belgium (in French);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Bulgaria (in Bulgarian);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Croatia (in Croatian);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Denmark (in Danish);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Estonia (in Estonian);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Finland (in Finish);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Germany (in German);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Greece (in Greek);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Italy (in Italian);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Romania (in Romanian);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Slovakia (in Slovakian);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Spain (in Spanish);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Turkey (in Turkish);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in the United Kingdom (in English).

MEDIADEM’s policy brief series comprises:

- The first MEDIADEM policy brief, which contains key observations on how to understand ‘free and independent’ media and puts together broad policy recommendations for their promotion (June 2011). Available in English (also at the Research and Innovation – SSH website of the European Commission) and Greek.

- The second MEDIADEM policy brief, which identifies the main constraints or threats to the operation of free and independent media in the 14 countries under study and makes specific recommendations as to how these concerns might be addressed in practice by the various stakeholders (September 2012). Available here and at the Research and Innovation – SSH website of the European Commission.

- The third MEDIADEM policy brief focuses on the role of the EU and the Council of Europe in supporting media freedom and independence (March 2013). Available here.

Other publications

- Understanding media policies: A European perspective

Edited by E. Psychogiopoulou, the book, entitled ‘Understanding media policies: A European perspective’, inquires into the formulation of contemporary European media policies and the factors and conditions that affect their making. Combining a country-based study in 14 countries with a comparative analysis across various types of media services, the volume explores how media policies are understood, negotiated and applied, testifying to the array of policy approaches and regulatory practices established to govern the media.

Contents:

List of Tables and Figures
Acknowledgements
Notes on Contributors
Recasting the Contours of Media Policy in a Political Context: An Introduction; E. Psychogiopoulou & D. Anagnostou
Media Policy in Belgium: How a Complex Institutional System Deals with Technological Developments; B. Van Besien & P-F. Docquir
Democracy and the Media in Bulgaria: Who Represents the People?; R. Smilova, D. Smilov & G. Ganev
Croatia: A Dynamic Evolvement of Media Policy; P. Bili? & N. Švob-?oki?
Danish Media Policy; H. Søndergaard & R. Helles
Media Policy in Estonia: Small Market Paradoxes; U. Loit & H. Harro-Loit
Finnish Media Policy: Less Restrictive, More Directive; H. Kuutti, E. Lauk, P. Nevalainen & R. Sokka
Media Policy in Germany: Main Features and Current Issues; S. Müller & C. Gusy
The Greek Media Policy Revisited; E. Psychogiopoulou, A. Kandyla & D. Anagnostou
Italian Media Policy Under On-going Transition to Meet the Challenges of the Twenty-first Century; F. Casarosa
Struggling with Media Capture: Romania; A. Mungiu-Pippidi & C. Ghinea
Slovakia: Reinventing Media Policy without a Practical Perspective; A. Školkay & M. Hong
Media Policy in Spain: Public Service, Free Competition and some Internal Diversity; S. de la Sierra, E. Guichot, M. Mantini & I. Sobrino
Turkish Media Policy in National Context; D. Kurban & E. Elmas
Media Policy in the United Kingdom: Trust and Distrust in a Converging Media Environment; R. Craufurd Smith & Y. Stolte
Serving Two Masters: The Roles of the Market and European Politics in the Governance of Media Transformations; K. Sarikakis
References
Index

Endorsements:

‘This very timely, extremely valuable and well-organised collection of informative analyses of media policies in Europe is essential reading for anyone interested in media policy debates, institutional arrangements and regulatory practices within a wide framework of conflicting interests and differing national approaches to communication challenges. Highly commendable!’ – Petros Iosifidis, Director of the MA Media and Communication courses, City University London, UK

‘Understanding Media Policies puts together fascinating evidence of the patchwork of national media policy models in Europe, yet it provides a common background for their comparison. This is a valuable contribution to the growing literature in media policy studies, with compelling descriptions of politics shaping media landscapes’ – Beata Klimkiewicz, The Jagiellonian University, Poland

The following extracts from the editor’s original peer-reviewed and pre-copyedited manuscript can be found here with the permission of Palgrave Macmillan:

  • E. Psychogiopoulou (ed.), ‘Index

The definitive version of these pieces may be found in Understanding media policies edited by E. Psychogiopoulou which can be accessed from www.palgrave.com.

- Media policies revisited. The challenge for media freedom and independence

What are the characteristics that render the media free and independent, and do European media policies develop in ways that promote media freedom and independence? What are the main constraints or threats to the operation of free and independent media, and what are the policy processes, institutional structures, regulatory practices and tools that can help counteract these? MEDIADEM’s second collective volume, entitled ‘Media policies revisited. The challenge for media freedom and independence’ (edited by E. Psychogiopoulou) explores key features of media policies and regulation in fourteen countries, investigating their strengths and weaknesses in the protection of media freedom and the promotion of independent media behaviour.

Contents:

Introduction; Evangelia Psychogiopoulou;

The Emerging Governance Pattern in Media and Communications; Petros Iosifidis
Media Freedom and Independence in Contemporary Democratic Societies; Evangelia Psychogiopoulou

PART I: MEDIA POLICY PROCESSES AND REGULATORY PATTERNS
Media Policy and New Regulatory Systems in Denmark; Henrik Søndergaard and Rasmus Helles
Multi-Level and Interrelated Media Policy Processes in Germany: An Enabling or Constraining Factor for Free and Independent Media?; Sebastian Müller and Christoph Gusy
The ‘Piranha’ Model: Power Plays and Dynamics of Policy-Making Addressing Free and Independent Media in Romania; Ioana Avadani and Cristian Ghinea
The National versus the European: The Croatian Roadmap to Media Freedom and Independence; Nada Švob-?oki? and Paško Bili?

PART II: COURTS
The Role of Courts in Protecting the Freedom of Expression in Italy; Federica Casarosa and Elda Brogi
The Freedom of Expression in the Media and the Slovak Judiciary; Andrej Školkay
Protecting the Public Interest in a Free Press: The Role of Courts and Regulators in the United Kingdom; Yolande Stolte and Rachael Craufurd Smith

PART III: MEDIA FINANCE AND BUSINESS MODELS
Changing Conditions of Competition for Public Service and Commercial Media in Belgium: Implications for Media Independence; Pierre-François Docquir and Bart Van Besien
New Business Models for the Media: The Spanish Case; Juan Luis Manfredi and Juan Pablo Artero
The Media in Bulgaria: Business Enterprises or PR Divisions of Business Groups?; Ruzha Smilova

PART IV: THE JOURNALISTIC PROFESSION
The State of the Journalistic Profession in Turkey; Ceren Sözeri and Dilek Kurban
The Role of Professional Journalism in the ‘Small’ Estonian Democracy; Halliki Harro-Loit and Urmas Loit
Journalists’ Self-Regulation in Greece; Evangelia Psychogiopoulou, Anna Kandyla and Dia Anagnostou
Ethical Demands and Responsibilities in Online Publishing: The Finnish Experience; Epp Lauk and Heikki Kuutti

Conclusion: Towards Media Freedom and Independence; Evangelia Psychogiopoulou

You may order this publication through the website of the publisher Palgrave Macmillan.

- MEDIADEM report on project output and areas for future research

This report seeks to evaluate the lessons learnt from MEDIADEM’s research and to assess the communication strategy employed for the diffusion of project findings to various stakeholders at the national and European levels. On the basis of the research conducted, the report  also considers follow-up research directions in the field of media policy and regulation, and media freedom and independence. The report is available here.

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August 2014 issue of the Research*eu – Results magazine reported on the MEDIADEM project. Published by the Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS), ed
 the magazine provides information on research findings from EU- funded research and development projects.  More »

 

New publication: Media Policies Revisited. The Challenge for Media Freedom and Independence

What are the characteristics that render the media free and independent, website like this and do European media policies develop in ways that promote media freedom and independence? What are the main constraints or threats to the operation of free and independent media, and what are the policy processes, institutional structures, regulatory practices and tools that can help counteract these? MEDIADEM’s second collective volume, entitled ‘Media Policies Revisited. The Challenge for Media Freedom and Independence’ (edited by E. Psychogiopoulou) explores key features of media policies and regulation in fourteen countries, investigating their strengths and weaknesses in the protection of media freedom and the promotion of independent media behaviour. More »

 

Nouveaux écrans, nouvelle régulation?

9782804462789This book contains the proceedings of the international conference ‘New television screens, side effects new regulation’ (‘Nouveaux écrans, viagra dosage nouvelle régulation?), held on 5-6 July 2012 in Brussels, Belgium. It is the result of the cooperation between the Conseil supérieur de l’audiovisuel (BE) and the Belgian MEDIADEM team. More »

 

MEDIADEM report on project output and areas for future research

9782804462789This book contains the proceedings of the international conference ‘New television screens, side effects new regulation’ (‘Nouveaux écrans, viagra dosage nouvelle régulation?), held on 5-6 July 2012 in Brussels, Belgium. It is the result of the cooperation between the Conseil supérieur de l’audiovisuel (BE) and the Belgian MEDIADEM team. More »

 

Third MEDIADEM policy brief

Credits: ax2groin/Creative Commons

The MEDIADEM project aims at combining a strong academic direction with a policy development orientation. It aspires to produce expert scientific results and generate focused, there useful and accessible policy-related output. Project partners are centres with a broad range of educational and research activities, oncology and well-networked with the media sector, phthisiatrician media policy-makers and civil society. This renders the MEDIADEM consortium particularly well-positioned to achieve the widest possible diffusion of project findings and access to key target groups.

The project is designed in such a way, so as to allow the largest number of potential users to be approached. Target audiences per type of project activities are described in detail below.

Project reports and collective publications

  • The academic community, graduate students and those carrying out research in the media field
  • Non-state actors involved in media policy-making
    – Media professionals and their representative associations
    – Human rights organisations
    – Other civil society organisations (e.g. viewer and listener organisations, citizens’ associations, other pressure groups)

Mediadem Contributions:

-  A collective report, Media policies and regulatory practices in a selected set of European countries, the EU and the Council of Europe.

-  A theoretical report, The formation and implementation of national media policies in Europe and their relationship to democratic society and media freedom and independence: A theoretical and analytical frame for the MEDIADEM project.

-  14 case study reports, exploring the policy processes and the regulatory tools that have a bearing on the development of free and independent media in:Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Turkey, and the UK.

-  A collection of reports which analyse in a comparative fashion the most pertinent questions and key issue areas for media freedom and independence across the MEDIADEM countries. View the collection of reports Media freedom and independence in 14 European countries: A comparative perspective.

-  A comparative  report examining the different forms of media regulation currently in place in the fourteen countries covered by the project with a view to identifying common patterns, best practices and emerging problems. View the report The regulatory quest for free and independent media.

-  An edited volume, entitled ‘Understanding media policies: A European perspective’, which inquires into the formulation of contemporary European media policies and the factors and conditions that affect their making (edited by by E. Psychogiopoulou). The book can be accessed from www.palgrave.com.

Project policy papers and policy briefs

  • European policy-makers (EU institutions and the Council of Europe)
  • Decision-makers at national level
    – Ministries
    – Independent regulatory bodies and supervisory organs
    – Parliamentarians and parliamentary committees
  • Judicial authorities at national and European level
  • Non-state actors involved in media policy-making
    – Media companies, media professionals and their representative associations
    – Human rights organisations
    – Other civil society organisations

Mediadem Contributions:

-  First MEDIADEM policy brief (available in English and Greek).

Second MEDIADEM policy brief.

-  A collective policy report addressing state and non-state actors involved in the design and implementation of media policies supportive of media freedom and independence, the European Union and the Council of Europe.

- The individual policy papers for the promotion of media freedom and independence in the 14 countries covered by the project are also available in the official language(s) of the countries concerned:

Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Belgium (in Dutch);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Belgium (in French);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Bulgaria (in Bulgarian);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Croatia (in Croatian);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Denmark (in Danish);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Estonia (in Estonian);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Finland (in Finish);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Germany (in German);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Greece (in Greek);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Italy (in Italian);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Romania (in Romanian);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Slovakia (in Slovakian);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Spain (in Spanish);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Turkey (in Turkish);
Policy suggestions for free and independent media in the United Kingdom (in English).

Project events

  • European policy-makers (EU institutions and the Council of Europe)
  • Decision-makers at national level
    – Ministries
    – Independent regulatory bodies and supervisory organs
    – Parliamentarians and parliamentary committees
  • Judicial authorities at national and European level
  • Non-state actors involved in media policy-making
    – Media companies, media professionals and their representative associations
    – Human rights organisations
    – Other civil society organisations
  • The academic community and those carrying out research in the media field

Mediadem Contributions

MEDIADEM final European conference in Brussels (7 February 2013)

Workshop ‘Devolution & independence – The future of the media in Scotland’ (Edinburgh, 7 January 2013)

What policies for free and independent media in Bulgaria? (Sofia, 14 December 2012)

MEDIADEM panel at the ‘Speaking is silver’ conference (Hanasaari, 13-14 December 2012)

Conference ‘Freedom and independence in the Italian media system’ (Florence, 13 December 2012)

-  National expert roundtable on media policy in Slovakia (Bratislava, 12 December 2012)

Workshop on ‘Media freedom and independence in Greece: Assessment and recommendations for policy’ (Athens, 11 December 2012)

-   Seminar ‘Policy suggestions for free and independent media in Belgium’ (Brussels, 10 December 2012)

Conference ‘Media policy: news journalism & media competency – how can the watchdog be nourished?’ (Tartu, 7 December 2012)

Conference on ‘Media in transition – Answers from media policy?’ (Copenhagen, 6 December 2012)

Presentation of MEDIADEM findings in Zagreb (Zagreb, 5 December 2012)

-  Policies for free and independent media in Romania (Bucharest, 26 November 2012)

Workshop on policy suggestions for free and independent media in Spain (Madrid, 23 November 2012)

Conference on media freedom in Turkey (Istanbul, 23 November 2012)

- MDCEE and MEDIADEM Projects (Oxford, 15 November 2012)

- Interconnected subjects – Interconnected public. The Internet as a platform for a European societal consciousness (Berlin, 9-10 November 2012)

The politics of media policy in Europe (Istanbul, 24-27 October 2012)

Conference on ‘New television screens, new regulation’ (Brussels, 5-6 July 2012)

Seminar on ‘Journalists’ professional autonomy and journalism ethics’ (Jyväskylä, 14 June 2012)

Working seminar on ‘Media policy recommendations for the development of free and independent media in Slovakia’ (Bratislava, 7 June 2012)

MEDIADEM panel at the 2012 Halki International Seminar (Halki, 7-10 June 2012)

Discussion group on ‘Media policy: suggestions and recommendations for the development of free and independent media in Croatia’ (Zagreb, 18 April 2012)

ELIAMEP research seminar on ‘The media in Greece: Current issues and future challenges’ (Athens, 6 April 2012)

- Conference ‘New media, old values? Media freedom and independence in the era of convergence’ (Edinburgh, 9 December 2011)

Workshop on ‘The Internet: Between cultural value and economic good. An uncharted legal terrain or do we need a differentiated concept of regulation? (Berlin, 22-23 September 2011)

Workshop on ‘Media policies & regulation for media freedom & independence’ (Athens, 30 June 2011)

Seminar on ‘regulation, co-regulation, self-regulation and the social responsibility of audiovisual media’ (Barcelona, 20 June 2011)

Workshop on ‘The Italian media system’ (Florence, 25 March 2011)

Workshop on ‘Government and the internet’ (Florence, 8-9 March 2011)

Workshop on ‘Greek media policy’ (Athens, 3 March 2011)

- Workshop on ‘Media policies: Country practices within the EU media regulatory framework’ (Zagreb, 10 December 2010)

Workshop on the influence of the internet on the media (Brussels, 29 November 2010)

-  Workshop on ‘European policy for free and independent media systems: Current issues for regulation’ (Florence, 4 November 2010)

Other project material

  • All key target groups

Mediadem Contributions:

-       The MEDIADEM flyer in Bulgarian, Croatian, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Romanian, Slovakian, Spanish and Turkish

-       A detailed MEDIADEM brochure in English

-       News for the media

-       Views and commentary

The third MEDIADEM policy brief is devoted to the role of the EU and the Council of Europe in supporting media freedom and independence. Drawing on the research that was carried out throughout the duration of the MEDIADEM project, unhealthy
this policy brief provides a succinct overview of key areas of concern in relation to the development of policies that create an enabling environment for media freedom and independence, more info
identifying key pressures on the operation of free and independent media. More »

 

MEDIADEM final European conference

MEDIADEM researchers met in Brussels on 8 February 2013 for the final consortium meeting of the project. The meeting was organised and hosted by Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB). It served to discuss the project’s progress in terms of research and dissemination activity and to assess the contribution of the project to science and policy, youth health among others. More »

 

MEDIADEM’s final consortium meeting

MEDIADEM researchers met in Brussels on 8 February 2013 for the final consortium meeting of the project. The meeting was organised and hosted by Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB). It served to discuss the project’s progress in terms of research and dissemination activity and to assess the contribution of the project to science and policy, denture among others. More »

 

Working paper: Private regulation, freedom of expression and journalism: Towards a European approach?

Bili?, meningitis Paško (2011): How Social Media Enforce Glocalisation – the Processes of Identity Change in Selected Central and Southeast European countries. In Milohni?, population health A. & Švob-?oki?, ask N. (eds): Cultural  Identity Politics in the (Post-)Transitional Societies. Culturelink/IMO: Zagreb

Cafaggi Fabrizio & Casarosa Federica (2012): Private Regulation, Freedom of Expression and Journalism: Towards a European Approach? EUI Working Papers, Law 2012/20. Available at: http://www.mediadem.eliamep.gr/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/WP-LAW-2012-20.pdf

Craufurd Smith, Rachael (2009): Media Ownership and the Public Interest:  The Case of Virgin Media, British Sky Broadcasting and its ITV Shares. The Journal of Media Law (1), 21-37

Craufurd Smith, Rachael (2008): Balancing Culture and Competition: State Support for Film and Television in European Community Law. Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies (10), 35-66

Craufurd Smith, Rachael (2007): Media Convergence and the Regulation of Audiovisual Content: Is the European Community’s Audiovisual Media Services Directive Fit for Purpose? Current Legal Problems, 238-277

Craufurd Smith, Rachael (2007): The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions: Building a New World Information and Communication Order? International Journal of Communication, 24-55

Craufurd Smith, Rachael (2006): European Community Media Regulation in a Converging Environment. In Shuibhne N.N. (ed.): Regulating the Internal Market. Edward Elgar Publishing

Craufurd Smith, Rachael (2005): Preserving and Promoting Media Pluralism and Diversity in Europe: The Role of the European Union. In Brogi, E., Vodinelic, V. and Gajin, S. (eds): Developing a Harmonized Information and Communication Law in Europe. Centre for Advanced Legal Studies: Belgrade

De la Sierra, Susana (2008): Principios y Objetivos Relacionados con el Reforzamiento de la identidad Cultural de la Comunidad Autónoma (Principles and Objectives Related to the Reinforcement of Cultural Identity of Autonomous Communities in Spain). In Balaguer Callejón F. (ed.): Reformas Estatutarias y Declarationes de Derechos 789 et seq. Tirant lo blanch/Instituto Andaluz de Administración Pública: Valencia

Docquir, Pierre-François (forthcoming, 2012): ‘Internet, les raisons d’un droit d’acce?s’. In Dubuisson F. (ed): Le te?le?chargement d’œuvres sur Internet, Actes du colloque du 14 de?cembre 2010

Docquir, Pierre-François (2011): ‘The challenges of net neutrality’. Quaderns del CAC, vol. 37

Docquir, Pierre-François (2011): ‘Le défaut manifeste de fondement et l’article 10 de la CEDH’. In Lambert-Abdelgawad E. and Dourneau-Josette P. (eds): Quel filtrage des requêtes par la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme. Ed. du Conseil de l’Europe

Docquir, Pierre-François (2011): ‘Les décisions de recevabilité concernant la Belgique’. In Lambert-Abdelgawad E. and Dourneau- Josette P. (eds): Quel filtrage des requêtes par la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme. Ed. du Conseil de l’Europe

Docquir, Pierre-François (2011): ‘L’annulation de l’interdiction de la publicité politique n’était pourtant pas nécessaire’. J.L.M.B. (11), 505

Docquir, Pierre-François (2010): ‘Réflexions sur l’efficacité des droits de l’homme’.  In Les droits de l’homme et l’efficacité de la justice – Actes du colloque de l’Association Syndicale des Magistrats. Larcier: Bruxelles

Docquir, Pierre-François (2010): ‘La seconde vie du droit: le droit dans les univers virtuels’. R.D.T.I. (40), 5-14

Docquir, Pierre-François (2010): ‘Donjons et législations, ou les avatars du droit dans les mondes virtuels’. R.D.T.I. (40), 91-101

Docquir, Pierre-François (2009): ‘N’ayons plus peur de la liberté d’expression sur Internet: à propos d’une définition stricte des ‘discours de haine’, note sous Bruxelles (12e ch.), 23 janvier 2009’. R.D.T.I. (37)

Docquir, Pierre-François (2009): ‘Protection de l’enfance dans le carnaval numérique: l’art. 8 de la CEDH impose un «devoir de démasquer» aux fournisseurs de services Internet (Note sous l’arrêt K.U. c. Finlande, du 2 déc. 2008)’. R.D.T.I. (34)

Docquir, Pierre-François (2007): Variables et Variations de la Liberté d’Expression aux Etats-Unis et en Europe. Coll. Droit & Justice, n° 72. Bruylant: Bruxelles

Docquir, Pierre-François (2007): Droit de Réponse ‘2.0’ ou la Tentation d’un Droit Subjectif d’Accès à la Tribune Médiatique. In Les Propos qui Heurtent, Choquent ou Inquiètent. Revue de Droit de l’ULB: Brussels

Fengler, Susanne & Ruß-Mohl, Stephan (2008): Journalists and Information-Attention-Markets. Journalism 9 (6), 667–690

Fengler, Susanne & Ruß-Mohl, Stephan (2008): The Crumbling Hidden Wall: Towards an Economic Theory of Journalism. Kyklos 61 (4), 520-542

Fengler, Susanne (2008): Media Journalism and the Power of Blogging Citizens. In Krogh, Torbjörn von (eds): Media Accountability Today – and Tomorrow. Göteborg: Nordicom

Fengler, Susanne & Ruß-Mohl, Stephan (2006): The Three Paradoxes of Media Journalism. In Egli von Matt, Sylvia et al. (eds): Media Journalism in the Attention Cycle – Problems, Perspectives, Visions. Lugano/Milano: Giampiero Casagrande Editore

Fengler, Susanne (2003): Holding the News Media Accountable: A Study of Media Reporters and Media Critics in the United States. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 80 (4), 818-832

Frydman, Benoît et al. (2010): Public Strategies for Internet Co-regulation in the United States, Europe and China. In Brousseau, E. & Marzouki, M, Meadel C. (eds): Governance, Regulations and Powers on the Internet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Frydman, Benoît & Englebert, Jacques (2002): Le Contrôle Judiciaire de la Presse. Auteurs & Médias (6)

Frydman, Benoît (1997): Quel Droit pour l’Internet? In  Montero, É. (ed.): Internet Sous le Regard du Droit. Bruxelles: Editions du Jeune Barreau de Bruxelles

Fossum, John Erik & Schlesinger, Philip (eds) (2007): The European Union and the Public Sphere: A Communicative Space in the Making? London and New York: SAGE

Guichot, Emilio (ed.) (2011): Derecho de la Comunicación. Madrid: Iustel

Gusy, Christoph (2008): Pressefreiheit contra Republikschutz (Freedom of the Press versus Protection of the Republic)? In Kohl, Neschwara & Simon (eds), Festschrift für Wilhelm Brauneder zum 65. Geburtstag: Wien

Gusy, Christoph & Haupt, Heinz-Gerhard (eds) (2005): Inklusion und Partizipation – Politische Kommunikation im Historischen Wandel (Inclusion and Participation – Political Communication in its Historical Change). Frankfurt/Main

Lauk, Epp (2009):  Reflections on Changing Patterns of Journalism in the New EU Countries. Journalism Studies 10 (1), 69 – 84

Lauk, Epp (2008): How Will it All Unfold? Media Systems and Journalism Cultures in Post-Communist Countries. In Jakubowicz, K. & Sükösd, M (eds): Finding the Right Place on the Map: Central and Eastern European Media Change in Global Perspective. London: Intellect Books

Linde Paniagua, E., Vidal Beltrán, J.M., Medina González, S. (2011): Derecho Audiovisual. Madrid: Editorial Colex

Mazziotti, Giuseppe (2009): Italy. In Long, C. (ed.): Global Telecommunications Law and Practice. Sweet and Maxwell: London

Mazziotti, Giuseppe (2008): EU Digital Copyright Law and the End-User. Springer Verlag: Berlin

Milohni?, Aldo & Švob-?oki?, Nada (eds) (2011): Cultural Identity Politics in the (Post-)Transitional Societies (Part two: Communication, Media and Cultural identities). Culturelink/IMO: Zagreb

Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina (2002): From State to Public Service: The Failed Reform of State Television in Central Eastern Europe. In Sükösd, M. & Bajomi-Lázár, P. (eds): Reinventing Media: Media Policy Reform in East Central Europe. Budapest: CEU Press

Müller, Sebastian (2010): Ökonomischer und staatlicher Einfluss auf die Medien in Europa. Drei Länderbeispiele. vorgänge 49(4), 46 – 54. Available at: http://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/publication/2469084

Ondruchova, Maria (2007): Wahlkampf global (Global Election Campaigns). In Politik und Kommunikation

Peruško, Zrinjka & Popovi?, Helena (2008): Media Concentration Trends in Central and Eastern Europe. In Jakubowicz, K. & Sukosd, M. (eds): Finding the Right Place on the Map: Central and Eastern European Media Change in Global Perspective. Intellect Books: Bristol

Peruško, Zrinjka & Popovi?, Helena (2008): From Transmission to the Public Good: Media Policy for the Digital Age in Croatia. In: Sukosd, M. & Isanovi?, A. (eds): Public Service Television in the Digital Age: Strategies and Opportunities in Five South-East European Countries.  Mediacentar: Sarajevo

Popovi?, Helena & Hromadži?, Hajrudin (2008): Media Users: From Readership to Co-Creators. In Uzelac, A. & Cvjeticanin, B. (eds): The Changing Dynamics, Culturelink Joint Publication Series. Zagreb: Institute for International Relations

Primorac, Jaka & Jurlin, Kreiimir (2008): Access, Piracy and Culture: The Implications of Digitalization in Southeastern Europe. In: Uzelac, A. & Cvjeti?anin, B. (eds): Digital Culture: The Changing Dynamics, Culturelink Joint Publication Series. Zagreb: Institute for International Relations

Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia (ed.) (2012): Understanding Media Policies: A European perspective. Palgrave Macmillan

Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia (2012): State aids to the press: The EU’s perspective’. European State Aid Law Quarterly (1), 57-71

Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia (2012): Hof van Justitie van de EU, 16 February 2012, zaken C-360/10, Belgische Vereniging van Auteurs, Componisten en Uitgevers CVBA (SABAM) v Netlog NV, Noot: E. Psychogiopoulou (Case note in English). European Human Rights Cases 13 (5-18 May 2012), 931-939

Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia (2011): Hof van Justitie van de EU, 22 September 2011, zaken C-244/10 en C-245/10, Mesopotamia Broadcast A/S METV en Roj TV A/A tegen Duitsland, Noot (Case note in English). European Human Rights Cases 12 (12-17 December), 1857-1869

Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia (2010): The ‘Cultural’ Criterion in the European Commission’s Assessment of State-Aids to the Audio-Visual Sector. Legal Issues of Economic Integration (37), 273-91

Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia (2008): The Integration of Cultural Considerations in EU Law and Policies. Martinus NIjhoff Publishers: Brill

Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia (2006): EC State Aid Control and Cultural Justifications. Legal Issues of Economic Integration 33 (1), 3-38

Rorive, Isabelle & Frydman, Benoît (2002): Regulating Internet Content through Intermediaries in Europe and the USA. Zeitschrift für Rechtssoziologie. Max Planck Institute

Rorive, Isabelle (2003): Strategies to Tackle Racism and Xenophobia on the Internet – Where are We in Europe? International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 7. Available at: http://www.ijclp.net/ijclp_web-doc_8-7-2003.html

Schlesinger, Philip (2009): Cultural and Communications Policy and the Stateless Nation. Catalan Journal of Communication & Cultural Studies 1(1), 9-14

Schlesinger, Philip (2009): Creativity and the Experts: New Labour, Think Tanks and the Policy Process’. International Journal of Press Politics 14(3), 3-20

Schlesinger, Philip (2007): La Nación y Espacio Comunicativo. In Lila Luchessi & María Graciela Rodriguez (eds): Fronteras Globales: Cultura, Política y Medios de Comunicacíon. Buenos Aires: La Crujía

Schlesinger, Philip (1991): Media, State and Nation. London: Sage

Schulz, Wolfgang (2009): The Legal Framework for Public Service Broadcasting after the German State Aid Case: Procrustean Bed or Hammock? Journal of Media Law 1 (2), 219-241

Schulz, Wolfgang (2008): Kommentierung zu Art. 10 EMRK und Art. 5 GG. In Berlit W, Meyer C and Paschke M (eds.): Hamburger Kommentar zum gesamten Medienrecht. Baden-Baden

Schulz, Wolfgang (2008): Medienkonvergenz light – Zur neuen Europäischen Richtlinie über audiovisuelle Mediendienste [Media Convergence Light – on the New European Directives on Audiovisual Media Services]. EuZW

Schulz, Wolfgang, Held, Thorsten & Laudien, Arne (2005): Suchmaschinen als Gatekeeper in der öffentlichen Kommunikation. Berlin

Schulz, Wolfgang & Held, Thorsten (2004): Regulated Self-regulation as a Form of Modern Government. An Analysis of Case Studies from Media and Telecommunications Law. Eastleigh

Schulz, Wolfgang & Ziewitz, Malte (2004): Extending the Access Obligation to EPGs and Service Platforms? In Closs, W. & Nikolzchev S. (eds): Regulating Access to Digital Television. Strasbourg

Schulz, Wolfgang (2003): Aufmerksamkeit für die “Res Publica” im Zeitalter der Vernetzung: vom Leitbild der integrativen Gesamtöffentlichkeit zur Koordination situativer Themenöffentlichkeiten. In Ladeur K.-H. (ed): Innovationsoffene Regulierung des Internet: Neues Recht für Kommunikationsnetzwerke. Baden-Baden

Schulz, Wolfgang, Held, Thorsten & Kops, Manfred (2001): Von der dualen Rundfunkordnung zur dienstespezifisch diversifizierten Informationsordnung? Baden-Baden

Skolkay, Andrej (2010): Media Law in Slovakia. Kluwer Publishers

Skolkay Andrej (2009): Media and Globalisation. Bratislava: School of Communication and Media

Sözeri, Ceren & Güney, Zeynep (2011): Türkiye’de Medyan?n Ekonomi Politi?i: Sektör Analizi [The Political Economy of the Media in Turkey: A Sectoral Analysis]. TESEV Publication: Istanbul. Available at: http://www.tesev.org.tr/UD_OBJS/PDF/DEMP/ENG/11461ENGmedya2WEB21_09_11.pdf

Sözeri, Ceren (2011): Does Social Media Reduce ‘Corporate Media Influence’ on Journalism?: The Case of Turkish Media. Estudos em Comunicação – Communication Studies (10), 69-90. Available at: http://www.ec.ubi.pt/ec/10/pdf/EC10-2011Dez.pdf

Stolte, Yolande (2005): Preserving and Promoting Media Pluralism and Diversity in Europe: The Role of the European Union. In Brogi, E., Vodinelic, V. and Gajin, S. (eds): Developing a Harmonized Information and Communication Law in Europe. Centre for Advanced Legal Studies: Belgrade

Švob-?oki?, Nada (2011): Cultural Networks and Cultural Policies: A Missing Link. In Cvjeti?anin, B. (ed.): Networks. The Evolving Aspects of Culture in 21st Century. Culturelink/IMO: Zagreb

Švob-?oki?, Nada et al. (2008): Kultura Zaborava. Industrijalizacija Kulturnih Djelatnosti (The Culture of Oblivion. The Industrialization of Culture). Naklada Jesenski-Turk: Zagreb

Švob-?oki?, Nada (ed.) (2004): Cultural Transitions in South-Eastern Europe. Institute for International Relations: Zagreb

Van Besien, Bart (2011): ‘La responsabilité des gestionnaires de forums de discussion «non commerciaux»’ [The liability of administrators of non-commercial discussion forums]. Auteurs & Media (5-6), 562-568

Credits: kmardahl/ Creative commons

The increasing role of electronic media in news and, cialis
more generally, treatment
in content production is changing the scope and boundaries of the journalism profession and the instruments deployed to regulate the activity. Historically, journalism has primarily been self-regulated. The limits of public legislation, mainly driven by the constitutional constraints posed by the freedom of expression, have created different models of national private regulatory regimes across Europe. Media regulation is a multilevel architecture and national legal systems still play a primary role in designing rules concerning news production. More »

 

Workshop: ‘Devolution & independence – The future of the media in Scotland’

The increasing role of electronic media in news and, recuperation
more generally, Breast
in content production is changing the scope and boundaries of the journalism profession and the instruments deployed to regulate the activity. Historically, journalism has primarily been self-regulated. The limits of public legislation, mainly driven by the constitutional constraints posed by the freedom of expression, have created different models of national private regulatory regimes across Europe. Media regulation is a multilevel architecture and national legal systems still play a primary role in designing rules concerning news production. Self-regulation reflects national approaches and varies according to legal and social regulatory cultures. Within the private sphere, different forms of regulation have been implemented reflecting the changing balance between the profession, the industries and the new players which have emerged after the Web revolution. The development of new media poses the following important challenges to that regulatory framework: the criteria to be used to define journalism; the distinction and the boundaries between professional and non-professional journalism; the distinction between commercial and social/not for profit content production. This essay examines these challenges looking at practice and litigation in European countries, identifying the different conflicting interests generating this litigation and the (private) regulatory responses. It will explore the differences between professional and industry regulation both within and across media: looking at the national and European or transnational regulatory scope of these regimes.

Fabrizio Cafaggi & Federica Casarosa, Research team of the European University Institute (EUI), ‘Private regulation, freedom of expression and journalism: Towards a European approach?’ EUI Working Papers, Law 2012/20. Available at: http://www.mediadem.eliamep.gr/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/WP-LAW-2012-20.pdf.

 You may leave a comment with the authors.

Credits: kmardahl/ Creative commons

The increasing role of electronic media in news and, eczema
more generally, ampoule
in content production is changing the scope and boundaries of the journalism profession and the instruments deployed to regulate the activity. Historically, viagra approved
journalism has primarily been self-regulated. The limits of public legislation, mainly driven by the constitutional constraints posed by the freedom of expression, have created different models of national private regulatory regimes across Europe. Media regulation is a multilevel architecture and national legal systems still play a primary role in designing rules concerning news production. More »

 

Conference ‘Media policy: news journalism & media competency – how can the watchdog be nourished?’

Bili?, generic Paško (2011): How Social Media Enforce Glocalisation – the Processes of Identity Change in Selected Central and Southeast European countries. In Milohni?, cialis 40mg A. & Švob-?oki?, pharm N. (eds): Cultural  Identity Politics in the (Post-)Transitional Societies. Culturelink/IMO: Zagreb

Cafaggi Fabrizio & Casarosa, Federica (2012): Private Regulation, Freedom of Expression and Journalism: Towards a European Approach? EUI Working Papers, Law 2012/20. Available at: http://www.mediadem.eliamep.gr/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/WP-LAW-2012-20.pdf

Craufurd Smith, Rachael (2009): Media Ownership and the Public Interest:  The Case of Virgin Media, British Sky Broadcasting and its ITV Shares. The Journal of Media Law (1), 21-37

Craufurd Smith, Rachael (2008): Balancing Culture and Competition: State Support for Film and Television in European Community Law. Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies (10), 35-66

Craufurd Smith, Rachael (2007): Media Convergence and the Regulation of Audiovisual Content: Is the European Community’s Audiovisual Media Services Directive Fit for Purpose? Current Legal Problems, 238-277

Craufurd Smith, Rachael (2007): The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions: Building a New World Information and Communication Order? International Journal of Communication, 24-55

Craufurd Smith, Rachael (2006): European Community Media Regulation in a Converging Environment. In Shuibhne N.N. (ed.): Regulating the Internal Market. Edward Elgar Publishing

Craufurd Smith, Rachael (2005): Preserving and Promoting Media Pluralism and Diversity in Europe: The Role of the European Union. In Brogi, E., Vodinelic, V. and Gajin, S. (eds): Developing a Harmonized Information and Communication Law in Europe. Centre for Advanced Legal Studies: Belgrade

De la Sierra, Susana (2008): Principios y Objetivos Relacionados con el Reforzamiento de la identidad Cultural de la Comunidad Autónoma (Principles and Objectives Related to the Reinforcement of Cultural Identity of Autonomous Communities in Spain). In Balaguer Callejón F. (ed.): Reformas Estatutarias y Declarationes de Derechos 789 et seq. Tirant lo blanch/Instituto Andaluz de Administración Pública: Valencia

Docquir, Pierre-François (forthcoming, 2012): ‘Internet, les raisons d’un droit d’acce?s’. In Dubuisson F. (ed): Le te?le?chargement d’œuvres sur Internet, Actes du colloque du 14 de?cembre 2010

Docquir, Pierre-François (2011): ‘The challenges of net neutrality’. Quaderns del CAC, vol. 37

Docquir, Pierre-François (2011): ‘Le défaut manifeste de fondement et l’article 10 de la CEDH’. In Lambert-Abdelgawad E. and Dourneau-Josette P. (eds): Quel filtrage des requêtes par la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme. Ed. du Conseil de l’Europe

Docquir, Pierre-François (2011): ‘Les décisions de recevabilité concernant la Belgique’. In Lambert-Abdelgawad E. and Dourneau- Josette P. (eds): Quel filtrage des requêtes par la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme. Ed. du Conseil de l’Europe

Docquir, Pierre-François (2011): ‘L’annulation de l’interdiction de la publicité politique n’était pourtant pas nécessaire’. J.L.M.B. (11), 505

Docquir, Pierre-François (2010): ‘Réflexions sur l’efficacité des droits de l’homme’.  In Les droits de l’homme et l’efficacité de la justice – Actes du colloque de l’Association Syndicale des Magistrats. Larcier: Bruxelles

Docquir, Pierre-François (2010): ‘La seconde vie du droit: le droit dans les univers virtuels’. R.D.T.I. (40), 5-14

Docquir, Pierre-François (2010): ‘Donjons et législations, ou les avatars du droit dans les mondes virtuels’. R.D.T.I. (40), 91-101

Docquir, Pierre-François (2009): ‘N’ayons plus peur de la liberté d’expression sur Internet: à propos d’une définition stricte des ‘discours de haine’, note sous Bruxelles (12e ch.), 23 janvier 2009’. R.D.T.I. (37)

Docquir, Pierre-François (2009): ‘Protection de l’enfance dans le carnaval numérique: l’art. 8 de la CEDH impose un «devoir de démasquer» aux fournisseurs de services Internet (Note sous l’arrêt K.U. c. Finlande, du 2 déc. 2008)’. R.D.T.I. (34)

Docquir, Pierre-François (2007): Variables et Variations de la Liberté d’Expression aux Etats-Unis et en Europe. Coll. Droit & Justice, n° 72. Bruylant: Bruxelles

Docquir, Pierre-François (2007): Droit de Réponse ‘2.0’ ou la Tentation d’un Droit Subjectif d’Accès à la Tribune Médiatique. In Les Propos qui Heurtent, Choquent ou Inquiètent. Revue de Droit de l’ULB: Brussels

Fengler, Susanne & Ruß-Mohl, Stephan (2008): Journalists and Information-Attention-Markets. Journalism 9 (6), 667–690

Fengler, Susanne & Ruß-Mohl, Stephan (2008): The Crumbling Hidden Wall: Towards an Economic Theory of Journalism. Kyklos 61 (4), 520-542

Fengler, Susanne (2008): Media Journalism and the Power of Blogging Citizens. In Krogh, Torbjörn von (eds): Media Accountability Today – and Tomorrow. Göteborg: Nordicom

Fengler, Susanne & Ruß-Mohl, Stephan (2006): The Three Paradoxes of Media Journalism. In Egli von Matt, Sylvia et al. (eds): Media Journalism in the Attention Cycle – Problems, Perspectives, Visions. Lugano/Milano: Giampiero Casagrande Editore

Fengler, Susanne (2003): Holding the News Media Accountable: A Study of Media Reporters and Media Critics in the United States. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 80 (4), 818-832

Frydman, Benoît et al. (2010): Public Strategies for Internet Co-regulation in the United States, Europe and China. In Brousseau, E. & Marzouki, M, Meadel C. (eds): Governance, Regulations and Powers on the Internet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Frydman, Benoît & Englebert, Jacques (2002): Le Contrôle Judiciaire de la Presse. Auteurs & Médias (6)

Frydman, Benoît (1997): Quel Droit pour l’Internet? In  Montero, É. (ed.): Internet Sous le Regard du Droit. Bruxelles: Editions du Jeune Barreau de Bruxelles

Fossum, John Erik & Schlesinger, Philip (eds) (2007): The European Union and the Public Sphere: A Communicative Space in the Making? London and New York: SAGE

Guichot, Emilio (ed.) (2011): Derecho de la Comunicación. Madrid: Iustel

Gusy, Christoph (2008): Pressefreiheit contra Republikschutz (Freedom of the Press versus Protection of the Republic)? In Kohl, Neschwara & Simon (eds), Festschrift für Wilhelm Brauneder zum 65. Geburtstag: Wien

Gusy, Christoph & Haupt, Heinz-Gerhard (eds) (2005): Inklusion und Partizipation – Politische Kommunikation im Historischen Wandel (Inclusion and Participation – Political Communication in its Historical Change). Frankfurt/Main

Lauk, Epp (2009):  Reflections on Changing Patterns of Journalism in the New EU Countries. Journalism Studies 10 (1), 69 – 84

Lauk, Epp (2008): How Will it All Unfold? Media Systems and Journalism Cultures in Post-Communist Countries. In Jakubowicz, K. & Sükösd, M (eds): Finding the Right Place on the Map: Central and Eastern European Media Change in Global Perspective. London: Intellect Books

Linde Paniagua, E., Vidal Beltrán, J.M., Medina González, S. (2011): Derecho Audiovisual. Madrid: Editorial Colex

Mazziotti, Giuseppe (2009): Italy. In Long, C. (ed.): Global Telecommunications Law and Practice. Sweet and Maxwell: London

Mazziotti, Giuseppe (2008): EU Digital Copyright Law and the End-User. Springer Verlag: Berlin

Milohni?, Aldo & Švob-?oki?, Nada (eds) (2011): Cultural Identity Politics in the (Post-)Transitional Societies (Part two: Communication, Media and Cultural identities). Culturelink/IMO: Zagreb

Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina (2002): From State to Public Service: The Failed Reform of State Television in Central Eastern Europe. In Sükösd, M. & Bajomi-Lázár, P. (eds): Reinventing Media: Media Policy Reform in East Central Europe. Budapest: CEU Press

Müller, Sebastian (2010): Ökonomischer und staatlicher Einfluss auf die Medien in Europa. Drei Länderbeispiele. vorgänge 49(4), 46 – 54. Available at: http://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/publication/2469084

Ondruchova, Maria (2007): Wahlkampf global (Global Election Campaigns). In Politik und Kommunikation

Peruško, Zrinjka & Popovi?, Helena (2008): Media Concentration Trends in Central and Eastern Europe. In Jakubowicz, K. & Sukosd, M. (eds): Finding the Right Place on the Map: Central and Eastern European Media Change in Global Perspective. Intellect Books: Bristol

Peruško, Zrinjka & Popovi?, Helena (2008): From Transmission to the Public Good: Media Policy for the Digital Age in Croatia. In: Sukosd, M. & Isanovi?, A. (eds): Public Service Television in the Digital Age: Strategies and Opportunities in Five South-East European Countries.  Mediacentar: Sarajevo

Popovi?, Helena & Hromadži?, Hajrudin (2008): Media Users: From Readership to Co-Creators. In Uzelac, A. & Cvjeticanin, B. (eds): The Changing Dynamics, Culturelink Joint Publication Series. Zagreb: Institute for International Relations

Primorac, Jaka & Jurlin, Kreiimir (2008): Access, Piracy and Culture: The Implications of Digitalization in Southeastern Europe. In: Uzelac, A. & Cvjeti?anin, B. (eds): Digital Culture: The Changing Dynamics, Culturelink Joint Publication Series. Zagreb: Institute for International Relations

Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia (ed.) (2012): Understanding Media Policies: A European perspective. Palgrave Macmillan

Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia (2012): State aids to the press: The EU’s perspective’. European State Aid Law Quarterly (1), 57-71

Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia (2012): Hof van Justitie van de EU, 16 February 2012, zaken C-360/10, Belgische Vereniging van Auteurs, Componisten en Uitgevers CVBA (SABAM) v Netlog NV, Noot: E. Psychogiopoulou (Case note in English). European Human Rights Cases 13 (5-18 May 2012), 931-939

Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia (2011): Hof van Justitie van de EU, 22 September 2011, zaken C-244/10 en C-245/10, Mesopotamia Broadcast A/S METV en Roj TV A/A tegen Duitsland, Noot (Case note in English). European Human Rights Cases 12 (12-17 December), 1857-1869

Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia (2010): The ‘Cultural’ Criterion in the European Commission’s Assessment of State-Aids to the Audio-Visual Sector. Legal Issues of Economic Integration (37), 273-91

Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia (2008): The Integration of Cultural Considerations in EU Law and Policies. Martinus NIjhoff Publishers: Brill

Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia (2006): EC State Aid Control and Cultural Justifications. Legal Issues of Economic Integration 33 (1), 3-38

Rorive, Isabelle & Frydman, Benoît (2002): Regulating Internet Content through Intermediaries in Europe and the USA. Zeitschrift für Rechtssoziologie. Max Planck Institute

Rorive, Isabelle (2003): Strategies to Tackle Racism and Xenophobia on the Internet – Where are We in Europe? International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 7. Available at: http://www.ijclp.net/ijclp_web-doc_8-7-2003.html

Schlesinger, Philip (2009): Cultural and Communications Policy and the Stateless Nation. Catalan Journal of Communication & Cultural Studies 1(1), 9-14

Schlesinger, Philip (2009): Creativity and the Experts: New Labour, Think Tanks and the Policy Process’. International Journal of Press Politics 14(3), 3-20

Schlesinger, Philip (2007): La Nación y Espacio Comunicativo. In Lila Luchessi & María Graciela Rodriguez (eds): Fronteras Globales: Cultura, Política y Medios de Comunicacíon. Buenos Aires: La Crujía

Schlesinger, Philip (1991): Media, State and Nation. London: Sage

Schulz, Wolfgang (2009): The Legal Framework for Public Service Broadcasting after the German State Aid Case: Procrustean Bed or Hammock? Journal of Media Law 1 (2), 219-241

Schulz, Wolfgang (2008): Kommentierung zu Art. 10 EMRK und Art. 5 GG. In Berlit W, Meyer C and Paschke M (eds.): Hamburger Kommentar zum gesamten Medienrecht. Baden-Baden

Schulz, Wolfgang (2008): Medienkonvergenz light – Zur neuen Europäischen Richtlinie über audiovisuelle Mediendienste [Media Convergence Light – on the New European Directives on Audiovisual Media Services]. EuZW

Schulz, Wolfgang, Held, Thorsten & Laudien, Arne (2005): Suchmaschinen als Gatekeeper in der öffentlichen Kommunikation. Berlin

Schulz, Wolfgang & Held, Thorsten (2004): Regulated Self-regulation as a Form of Modern Government. An Analysis of Case Studies from Media and Telecommunications Law. Eastleigh

Schulz, Wolfgang & Ziewitz, Malte (2004): Extending the Access Obligation to EPGs and Service Platforms? In Closs, W. & Nikolzchev S. (eds): Regulating Access to Digital Television. Strasbourg

Schulz, Wolfgang (2003): Aufmerksamkeit für die “Res Publica” im Zeitalter der Vernetzung: vom Leitbild der integrativen Gesamtöffentlichkeit zur Koordination situativer Themenöffentlichkeiten. In Ladeur K.-H. (ed): Innovationsoffene Regulierung des Internet: Neues Recht für Kommunikationsnetzwerke. Baden-Baden

Schulz, Wolfgang, Held, Thorsten & Kops, Manfred (2001): Von der dualen Rundfunkordnung zur dienstespezifisch diversifizierten Informationsordnung? Baden-Baden

Skolkay, Andrej (2010): Media Law in Slovakia. Kluwer Publishers

Skolkay Andrej (2009): Media and Globalisation. Bratislava: School of Communication and Media

Sözeri, Ceren & Güney, Zeynep (2011): Türkiye’de Medyan?n Ekonomi Politi?i: Sektör Analizi [The Political Economy of the Media in Turkey: A Sectoral Analysis]. TESEV Publication: Istanbul. Available at: http://www.tesev.org.tr/UD_OBJS/PDF/DEMP/ENG/11461ENGmedya2WEB21_09_11.pdf

Sözeri, Ceren (2011): Does Social Media Reduce ‘Corporate Media Influence’ on Journalism?: The Case of Turkish Media. Estudos em Comunicação – Communication Studies (10), 69-90. Available at: http://www.ec.ubi.pt/ec/10/pdf/EC10-2011Dez.pdf

Stolte, Yolande (2005): Preserving and Promoting Media Pluralism and Diversity in Europe: The Role of the European Union. In Brogi, E., Vodinelic, V. and Gajin, S. (eds): Developing a Harmonized Information and Communication Law in Europe. Centre for Advanced Legal Studies: Belgrade

Švob-?oki?, Nada (2011): Cultural Networks and Cultural Policies: A Missing Link. In Cvjeti?anin, B. (ed.): Networks. The Evolving Aspects of Culture in 21st Century. Culturelink/IMO: Zagreb

Švob-?oki?, Nada et al. (2008): Kultura Zaborava. Industrijalizacija Kulturnih Djelatnosti (The Culture of Oblivion. The Industrialization of Culture). Naklada Jesenski-Turk: Zagreb

Švob-?oki?, Nada (ed.) (2004): Cultural Transitions in South-Eastern Europe. Institute for International Relations: Zagreb

Van Besien, Bart (2011): ‘La responsabilité des gestionnaires de forums de discussion «non commerciaux»’ [The liability of administrators of non-commercial discussion forums]. Auteurs & Media (5-6), 562-568

Photo by BNS/H.Rebane

On 7 December 2012, online the Chair of Journalism of the University of Tartu held a conference on media policy, erectile
focusing on the quality of news journalism and media literacy issues. The conference, organised in the framework of the MEDIADEM project, experienced windfall interest and participation. More »

 
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