New funding regime for Public Service Broadcasting in Germany: Interstate Treaty envisages a household and company contribution by 1 January 2013

The School of Communication and Media (SKAMBA) organised a press conference in Bratislava on 1 December 2011 to present the results of a case study and an on-line survey on the impact of media policy on free and independent media performance in Slovakia. The results were presented by Dr. Andrej Školkay, an expert on media legislation. The event was attended by representatives of the Slovak Syndicate of Journalists, the Supreme Court, the Ministry of Culture and the media (including wire agencies).

The on-line survey took place between November 1 and 14, 2011, among a sample of more than 200 Slovak journalists and media managers from national, regional and local media from all regions of Slovakia.

The vast majority of survey respondents (about 90%) expressed the view that journalists can work freely or rather freely in Slovakia. Research findings suggest that the freedom of expression in general, and through the media in particular, is primarily supported by the rulings of the Constitutional Court, which has in recent years shifted to favouring freedom of speech and media and has also issued several key liberal decisions in this regard. The freedom of the media is relatively limited by the more conservative Council for Broadcasting and Retransmission (the main regulatory body for electronic/digital media) and a part of lower general judiciary (district courts). That is because a part of the judiciary issues unpredictable decisions in disputes relating to protection of personality rights vis-a-vis freedom of expression. There also seems to be a problem with the Supreme Court which has issued several contradictory rulings in cases related to the decision-making of the Council for Broadcasting and Retransmission in regulatory issues.

The results further suggest that the Parliament as a policy maker is largely subordinated to the executive power (the Cabinet). However, several unexpected legislative initiatives were passed by the Parliament, which eventually limited freedom of speech, such as an amendment to the Penal Code sanctioning public questioning of crimes of communism and fascism.

Respondents feel that financial sanctions in court proceedings related to libel/defamation cases (non-pecuniary damages) do not have a liquidation impact on the media – smaller media outlets are usually cautious enough in making public unsubstantiated accusations, while big media outlets have sufficient resources to cover such costs.

Overall, respondents think that Slovakia has been missing an influential and respected journalistic organisation.

The findings of the on-line can be consulted here (in Slovakian).

The School of Communication and Media (SKAMBA) organised a press conference in Bratislava on 1 December 2011 to present the results of a case study and an on-line survey on the impact of media policy on free and independent media performance in Slovakia. The results were presented by Dr. Andrej Školkay, (in Slovakian).

The School of Communication and Media (SKAMBA) organised a press conference in Bratislava on 1 December 2011 to present the results of a case study and an on-line survey on the impact of media policy on free and independent media performance in Slovakia. The results were presented by Dr. Andrej Školkay, (in Slovakian).

The School of Communication and Media (SKAMBA) organised a press conference in Bratislava on 1 December 2011 to present the results of a case study and an on-line survey on the impact of media policy on free and independent media performance in Slovakia. The results were presented by Dr. Andrej Školkay, (in Slovakian).

The School of Communication and Media (SKAMBA) organised a press conference in Bratislava on 1 December 2011 to present the results of a case study and an on-line survey on the impact of media policy on free and independent media performance in Slovakia. The results were presented by Dr. Andrej Školkay, the scientist in charge of the MEDIADEM Slovakian research team, (in Slovakian).

The School of Communication and Media (SKAMBA) organised a press conference in Bratislava on 1 December 2011 to present the results of a case study and an on-line survey on the impact of media policy on free and independent media performance in Slovakia. The results were presented by Dr. Andrej Školkay, and Mgr. Radoslav Kutaš, an expert on media legislation. The event was attended by representatives of the Slovak Syndicate of Journalists, the Supreme Court, the Ministry of Culture and the media (including wire agencies).

The on-line survey took place between November 1 and 14, 2011, among a sample of more than 200 Slovak journalists and media managers from national, regional and local media from all regions of Slovakia.

The vast majority of survey respondents (about 90%) expressed the view that journalists can work freely or rather freely in Slovakia. Research findings suggest that the freedom of expression in general, and through the media in particular, is primarily supported by the rulings of the Constitutional Court, which has in recent years shifted to favouring freedom of speech and media and has issued several key liberal decisions in this regard. The freedom of the media is relatively limited by the more conservative Council for Broadcasting and Retransmission (the main regulatory body for electronic/digital media) and a part of lower general judiciary (district courts). This is because a part of the judiciary issues unpredictable decisions in disputes relating to the protection of personality rights vis-à-vis freedom of expression. There also seems to be a problem with the Supreme Court which has issued several contradictory rulings in cases related to the decision-making of the Council for Broadcasting and Retransmission in regulatory issues.

The results further suggest that the Parliament as a policy maker is largely subordinate to the executive power (the Cabinet). However, several unexpected legislative initiatives were passed by the Parliament, which eventually limited freedom of speech, such as an amendment to the Penal Code sanctioning public questioning of crimes of communism and fascism.

Respondents feel that financial sanctions in court proceedings related to libel/defamation cases (non-pecuniary damages) do not have a liquidation impact on the media – smaller media outlets are usually cautious enough in making public unsubstantiated accusations, while big media outlets have sufficient resources to cover such costs.

Overall, respondents think that Slovakia has been missing an influential and respected journalistic organisation.

The findings of the on-line can be consulted here (in Slovakian).

Credits: Thomas Wanhoff/ Creative Commons

In December 2011, (in the form of the 15th Interstate Treaty amending the Interstate Treaties on Broadcasting).